'Emigration'

As slow our ship, her foamy track
  Against the wind was cleaving,
Her trembling pennant still look’d back
  To that dear isle ‘twas leaving.
So loath we part from all we love,
  From all the links that bind us,
So turn our hearts as on we rove
  To those we’ve left behind us."
                             (“Irish Melodies”)
 
1834 EMIGRATION - passages arranged by T.WOOD, Grocer, Dover 
 
(Dover Telegraph 12 Apr 1834 p.1 col.1)
 
Going to the USA:
"Six inmates of the Dover Union, named Wm WARD, Henry WATTS, Henry CLARKE, Thomas GEE, George LAW and Thomas BUTLER, who had volunteered for emigration to Canada, left on Tuesday for embarkation.  They were supplied with proper clothing for use on their arrival in America, and the expense of their passage will be defrayed from the parish funds".  
(Dover Telegraph 1 May 1847 back page col.2)
 
1835 FEMALE EMIGRATION:    Mr MARSHALL the agent of the emigration committee has communicated to the Overseers of St Mary the Virgin, in this town the following statement of the disposal of four young females who were sent out in the month of May last at the expense of the parish by the ship “Strathfieldsaye” to Van Diemen’s Land:
Mary Ann PRICE hired to Mrs REES of Colonial River at £10 per year;  Sarah GOODMAN to Mrs HOPKINS of Hobart Town at £14 per year;   Fanny DOYLE to Mrs SEARS at £8 per year;    And Ann DOYLE with the same person but not finally fixed when the report came away.” 
(Dover Telegraph 7 March 1835 p.8 col.2)
 
VOLUNTEERS FOR EMIGRATION:
Mary Ann PRICE  17  next June  and  others -   re a meeting on 27.3.1834 -  volunteered for emigration to Van Dieman's Land;   also a meeting on April 9 1834    …… the Asst. Overseer will send £15 to the agent for their voyage)   
(Dover St Mary Vestry Minutes U3/30/18/2)
    Mary Ann PRICE, St Mary's Parish, -  emigration -  arrived on the "Strathfieldsay"  at Van Dieman's Land, hired to Mrs REES of Colonial River  at £10 per year   
(Dover Telegraph 7 Mar 1835 p.8 col.2)
 
e – in Menezes’ party, in the ship “Weymouth” - in 1820 with Richd BOWLES, and all of her children,  and bore another son on arrival there.   Her children by husband Henry AMOS – all emigrated with her:
Henry (aged 16 in 1820),  Eliza(13), Charlotte(12), Rebecca(9),  Thomas(7),  Sarah(6),  Edward (4)      
(some of the above information from “Settlers Handbook" by M.D.Nash pp.91-92
 

 

 

Aaron WALKER was whipped in the Market Place on

22 November 1844  (list of Dover dates)

 

 

"Whipped at the Cart's Tail"  from an old print -
a sentence of whipping could be carried out either in public

(at the post, or over a distance "at the cart's tail"), or in private.

Thomas PAY aged 9, and William BACK aged 10, at Dover Quarter Sessions – (7 line report) – both charged with stealing – both sentenced to 14 days, and to be whipped every morning.   (Dover Telegraph 18 April 1846 p.8 col.4)

 

Stole 'Trowsers' and Bacon:
James BROWN, 26, labr, committed the same day on two charges of felony;  the first for stealing a pair of trowsers on 1 December from shop of W. HOLTUM, Queen Street, and the second for stealing a piece of bacon from a shop of J.R.USBORNE.  Mr HOLTUM deposed to having missed the pair of trowsers which he hung up at the door of his shop on 1 December and those produced in court were the identical articles.  Edwd NEWING a boy about 13 years of age said he saw the prisoner take a pair of trowsers from the front of the shop of Mr HOLTUM about 4 o’clock on the day in question and put them under his gaberdine and walk away with them.  Serjeant HOPPER of the police stated that, upon the prisoner being brought to the station house he had two pairs of trowsers on and those produced were underneath.  The prisoner said he bought the trowsers at the “Fountain” public house from a man he did not know, for 6 shillings and 6 pence.  Verdict: guilty.  The prisoner was also found guilty on the second charge and sentenced, for the first offence, 6 months imprisonment with hard labour for the second three months.  
(Dover Telegraph 12 Jan 1839 p.8))

 

CAUTION TO PAWNBROKERS -
At the Town Hall, before J.Boys and T. Blackburn Esq:
“John MORGAN, a tailor was charged by T. EVENDEN, with having pawned a suit of clothes, his property, with Mr. RADFORD, of the High Street, for 18s. 6d.   It appeared that the complainant furnished the accused with a quantity of cloth to make a suit of clothes, the cost of making which was to be 19s.  They were to be done by a certain day, and to be paid for immediately.   The accused got the clothes done by the appointed time, but the complainant broke faith, and sent for the clothes without the money several times.  The tailor then pledged the articles for the amount in question, urging that his pressing necessities compelled him to it.   The Bench decided the act was illegal, and fined the defendant 20s., and £3.6s., the value of the clothes, and ordered the pawnbroker to deliver up the property”     
(Dover Telegraph 30.10.1847 p.8 col.4)

Mr J. BATES, at Dover Petty Sessions was summoned for not sweeping snow from the front of his house
(Dover Telegraph 20 Feb 1847 p.8 col.2)

 

ILLEGALLY COLLECTED DIRT FROM THE STREETS:
William TOMS (a lad), - Dover Magistrates Court, charge of illegally collecting dirt from the streets,  property of  Pavement Contractor (Dover Telegraph 18 March 1837 p.8 col.4)
Richard COLLARD –  fined 5 shillings for taking dirt from the streets, the property of the contracting scavenger (Dover Telegraph 30 Dec 1837 p.8 col.2)

 

CAUTION TO DIRT COLLECTORS:   Mr F. Prescott, the contracting scavenger under the Pavement Board, preferred a charge on Monday before the Magistrates, against a boy of the name of Dennis, for taking dirt off the streets, contrary to the provisions of the Pavement Acts.  The father of the boy, who was only 11 yrs of age, did not appear;  but it was stated that he possessed three donkey carts which were used by his children in the collection of rubbish;  and as this was not the first occasion on which the contractor had received cause to complain of the family the Magistrates felt bound to inflict a punishment;  which they did on the lowest scale -  a penalty of five shillings or seven days imprisonment.   The Mayor observed it was distressing to send so young a child to prison, even for so short a period; but as his friends did not choose to come forward there was no alternative.   (Dover Telegraph 4 Nov 1837 back page col.3: POLICE REPORT)

 

BEING SENT TO HER GRANDFATHER IN DOVER:  
Elizabeth SAUNDERS, (spinster): Examination: - was apprehended wandering and begging at S.Twyford, Hants, gave oath on 26 Feb 1714…  said she was daughter of Richd SAUNDERS deceased who was born at Dover Kent and she was born at Spikes Bay on Island of Barbadoes and brought over from there with her father in the merchant ship called The Loyalty, the master was Charles COLLINS and the said ship was about a month since cast away nigh Falmouth and the master drowned, several others were set on shore at Falmouth in a long boate. She said she had a grandfather living in Dover by trade a shoemaker by name of John SAUNDERS and her grandfather sent for her from Spikes Bay, and also for her father, and her father was cast away in the said ship… (her mark, not corrected, being sick) aged about 18 yrs. To be sent to Dover to her grandfather there. 
(1715 Easter Q9/1/121 Southampton, Hants Quarter Sessions rolls)

 

Theft at River in 1750:    James BOVEY charged, upon the oaths of Thomas Hatton and Richard Bowles, with feloniously stealing out of a field in River in this county, one iron plow coulter, the property of him the said Thomas Hatton.  (marginal note:  Whipt Saturday next and the Saturday following, at St Dunstan's Cross)
(from Calendar of prisoners for E. and W. Kent Quarter Sessions, St Thomas and Michaelmas 1750)

 

CAUTION TO TIPPLERS -  Joseph PUDNEY:  Yesterday week, Joseph PUDNEY was convicted by the Mayor and Magistrates, in the sum of 20/- and costs, and John WILLIAMS and David HALLIDAY in the sum of 10/- each and costs, for having forcibly entered the "Tally-Ho" retail beer house, before 6 o'clock on the previous Tuesday morning, in a state of intoxication and because the landlord, Henry BURROWS, refused to draw them any beer, assaulted him and threatened to pull the house down over his ears". 
(Dover Telegraph 7 March 1835 p.8 col.2)

 

THROWING STONES - Edward CARLTON a lad about 14 charged with assaulting Henry ING - the complainant in a previous case, by throwing stones at him - fined 12s. 6d., costs included (lots of boys in Dover Market Place) 
(Dover Telegraph Sat.Dec.27 1856 p.8)

 

SHEEP STEALING:  Richard ROGERS and Wm ROGERS  of Ewell, at East Kent Sessions were convicted of sheep stealing at Coldred, both sentenced to transportation for life.  
(Dover Telegraph 21.11.1835 p.8 col.3)

 

Ellen MANN  and Ann STEADMAN:  While in a state of intoxication, they entered gardens and destroyed flowers and vegetables.  “Of loose character”, both were sentenced to 6 weeks in gaol. 
(Dover Telegraph 11 June 1836 p. 8 col. 3)

 

Elizabeth SUMMERS, servt. at 29 Waterloo Crescent. Dover Petty Sessions - stealing flowers, cautioned and fined 1s. 
(Dover Telegraph 29 May 1847 p.8 col.3)

 

IMPORTUNING ALMS :   John FITZGERALD, a vagrant, Dover Magistrates sentenced him to 14 days with hard labour for violently importuning al
ms. (Dover Telegraph 18 Mar 1837 p.8 col.4)

 

BATHING FROM SEASHORE AFTER 7AM:  Police Constable DUNFORD – gave evidence in case of 2 men bathing from the seashore after 7am  
(Dover Express 18.8.1916 p.25 col.4)

 

John MATTHEWS late coach porter at Ship Office:  Examined by magistrates and remanded on suspicion of stealing a parcel containing about 400 sovereigns 
  (Dover Telegraph 16.1.1836 p.8 col.4)


John MATTHEWS  at Dover General Sessions,  re. money parcel stolen.  Accused with his father in law, George Boyce HILL.  Long report.  Found NOT guilty. 
  (Dover Telegraph 20 Feb 1836 p.1 col.3)
John MATTHEWS, Porter at Messrs WORTHINGTONS:    Previously acquitted of theft – the stolen property was recovered - found buried in the garden of his house at Dover 
(Dover Telegraph 13 Aug 1836 p.8 col.1)

 

 

LOITERING:   Mary RILEY was charged by Supt. Laker with loitering about the streets in a state of comparative nudity.  The charge was supported by P.C.Geddes who took her into custody.  It was also stated that a shilling had been given the prisoner by W.P.Elsted Esq. with the understanding that she should get out of town, which however she had not done – she was ordered to leave the town forthwith. 
(Dover Telegraph Sat. Dec.1 1849, p.8 col.2, Dover Petty Sessions)

 

TREADMILL:  James JANCOCK Committed to the treadmill at Dover Gaol for stealing cherries
(Dover Telegraph 28 June 1834 p.8 col.4)

 

TREADMILLS: - close compartments  in which a prisoner remained for a quarter of an hour at a time, vigorously treading down a wheel of 24 steps at a fixed rate.  (after a period of rest, they resumed again).  The men could get no firm tread as the steps sank away from under their feet and made it very tiring. The air became hot and difficult to breathe....  Although stocks, pillory and roadside gibbets were no longer used jails were very severe - treadmill, crank, oakum picking, and strict regimentation.  Transportation only ceased to be an important method for major offenders in the early 1850s..  where there was NO threat to PROPERTY,  (the criminal law was very lenient towards violence and sentences passed on those caught seem surprisingly light).  Not until c.1865 were effective standards and treatment in gaol brought in and not until 1877 was a 'coherent national penal system' in place.
   (from "The Victorian Underworld" by Kellow Chesney, 1970)
          

DOVER PROPOSAL for TREADWHEEL: At Dover Town Council meeting "The Question of erecting a treadwheel in the Borough was introduced by the Town Clerk. Mr ROBINSON, in proposing its erection (the estimated expense of which was £320 - an amount requiring about a halfpenny rate) observed that he was satisfied it was the best thing that could be done for decreasing the number of vagrants by whom Dover was infested.    Communications were received from gaols: 
    at Maidstone – “the power of their mill is applied to grinding corn but they recommended a flywheel &c for a small gaol, to be better”
    at Canterbury- "prisoners generally and particularly vagrants, dislike working at the treadwheel much more than they do simple imprisonment. The power of the t-w here is not applied to any purpose."
    at Sandwich - The treadwheels are still in use since erected in 1832 and 1841, have had the effect of causing a considerable decrease in committals yearly... are much dreaded..  military prisoners and vagrants have decreased…  low diet and treadwheel has been the means of almost driving them from this Liberty….."
    Mr ROBINSON made other comments in favour of proposal at Dover. Mr BIRMINGHAM seconded and said it should be beneficial.  Mr HART opposed the non-productive aspect as against the present "oakum picking" and proposed it was not expedient. The original proposal was carried.    
(The Dover Telegraph 11 Aug 1849 back page col.3)